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Symptoms, causes, and treatments – Health News Today


  • One of the earliest symptoms of iodine deficiency is goiter, which is the abnormal enlargement of your thyroid. 
  • You may be at a greater risk of iodine deficiency if you are pregnant, vegan, or avoid salt.
  • To treat iodine deficiency, you should increase your intake of iodine-rich foods like seafood, or take a supplement. 
  • Visit Insider’s Health Reference library for more advice.

Iodine is a crucial mineral for forming hormones that help us use oxygen and produce heat in the body. Iodine can be found in high amounts in salt and seafood. But, when a person does not eat enough iodine, a deficiency occurs.

Here’s everything you need to know about an iodine deficiency and how to treat it.

What does iodine do? 

Iodine is ingested from food and stored in the thyroid gland. 

“Its main function is to help synthesize the thyroid hormones,” says Jean Hanks, RDN, a dietitian at Bethany Medical Clinic of New York. “These hormones are involved in stimulating oxygen consumption, body heat, and metabolism rate, and play a role in the normal development of the nervous system.” 

To maintain the thyroid’s proper functioning, a person must retain adequate iodine levels in their diet. If a person does not, an iodine deficiency will develop. As of 2017, there are about two billion people worldwide with an iodine deficiency. 

Signs and symptoms of iodine deficiency 

One condition that can result from an iodine deficiency is hypothyroidism, which is when the thyroid doesn’t produce the hormones it typically creates. 

This can cause symptoms like: 

  • Fatigue
  • Sensitivity to cold 
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Goiter, an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid

“If your diet is low in iodine, the thyroid gland will enlarge to attempt to take up more iodine. If left untreated, the gland can grow so large it causes difficulty breathing,” says Elizabeth Klingbeil, PhD, RDN, LDN, an assistant professor in the department of nutrition & dietetics at Johnson & Wales University. This condition is often the earliest sign of an iodine deficiency. 

Causes of iodine deficiency 

When a person doesn’t receive enough iodine through their diet or supplements, a deficiency can emerge. The amount of iodine you need changes throughout your life. The recommended dietary allowance of iodine for people at different ages is:

  • Infant to six months: 110 mcg
  • Baby seven to 12 months: 130 mcg
  • One to eight years: 90 mcg
  • Nine to 13 years: 120 mcg
  • 14 years and older: 150 mcg
  • Pregnant: 220 mcg
  • Breastfeeding: 290 mcg

According to Klingbeil, living in a location with low iodine levels in the soil is one of the highest risk factors for an iodine deficiency. This includes areas such as the Great Lakes region of the US and mountainous areas like the Himalayas. Low levels of iodine in the soil translates to low levels of iodine in crops. 

According to Hanks, other factors that could…

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